Postwar Poland/USSR (1946-47): the following 3 documents relate to the movements and whereabouts of a Jewish-Polish Holocaust survivor, Berek Frydman. They give a fascinating insight into the immediate postwar experience of survivors in the eastern bloc, and also of the bureaucracy of the Soviet-Polish authorities of that time.
The first document is a primitive-looking Soviet 'Reference [letter]' issued to citizen 'Fridman, B.' who works in the invalid workers' cooperative "Artel 'Molot'" in the capacity of an at-home shoemaker.' In spite of its improvised appearance, the document bears official counter-stamps, one of which is still pre-formatted to the 1930's: The document was issued on 1 Nov. 1946, in the Yuzhno-Kazakhstan Oblast in Turkmenistan, and signed by the head manageress Olshayetzkaya and her secretary Kandelky. The 'stationary' counterstamp simply states the "invalid cooperative"s name and location.
A subsequent document shows that Frydman was born in a Polish city occupied by the Germans (i.e. not the Soviets) in 1939; Frydman may have escaped the German advance and entered Soviet territory (afterwhich the Soviets may have deported him eastward), or perhaps he survived a camp and was liberated by the Soviets. It may be that Frydman was liberated - that would explain his presence at an invalid's workers' cooperative.
The second document is a Polish work certificate issued by the Employment Office for the Wroclaw (formerly Breslau) district - in the city of Walbryzch, on 8 May 1947 (i.e. 2 years after the Second World War) - though stamped both by the Polish office and by the Soviet administration. It appears that Frydman was repatriated back to Poland, and he worked at an electrical firm. His presence there was confirmed 3 separate times that year by the stamps on the back of the form - until September 1947.
The third document is a Polish-issued temporary certification of identity, issued roughly a year after the reference letter (31 Dec. 1947) by the authorities in the city of Zarad (in the county of Walbrzych) - on Stalina Street #11 (note the predominance of Stalin's name in Eastern Europe at this time) - to Frydman, who is listed as being born in Pulawy. This certificate's validity expired a year later. The document is stamped by the city authorities.
מילות מפתח: היסטוריה בולאית מעטפות חותמות דואר תעריפים קישרי חוץ השואה גטאות פליט שורד פולין ברה"מ כיבוש גרמני נאצי רייך שלישי יודאיקה יודאיכה